In the 1850 census for Chicago, Ward 3, he is listed as living with the King family (relations aren’t spelled out in that census). Since the 1880 census shows him living with an uncle Nathanial King, this is likely the right Charles.
There is a Chas. Chovin in Kane, Illinois (St. Charles Ward) in the 1860 census that is also born 1824 in Michigan. Living with him is an Adelia Chovin, born 1843 in Illinois. Perhaps a daughter?
In 1870 census for St. Charles, Kane, Illinois, Charles is listed as a grocer. At that time, they had two farm labourers (born in Sweden) with them (Victor and Ama Sonaholm).
Resided in Saint Charles,Kane,Illinois in 1880 USA census. They also had an aunt and uncle (Narcissa Cooley, and Nathaniel King) living with them at the time, but not sure which side of the family they are from.